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Glossary of Gardeners Terms

Annuity
a regular payment received by pensioners of a society. The annuity could vary up and down from year to year as it was usual to divide the sum available amongst those who qualified. Both the sum and the qualifiers changed annually. Annuities might be paid annually, twice yearly, or quarterly.
Annuitant
a person receiving payments from an annuity.
Apprentice
a novice subject to a formal agreement of training between himself (or his guardians) and a master for a set period of time and for a set fee. Each apprentice would be examined by a number of masters at the end of their training. Successful apprentices graduated to journeyman.
Articles
the set of rules and regulations to which all members of a society agreed. The modification (or modernisation) of articles was a big step, subject to extended debate and ratification by the entire membership. 'Interjunctions', dispensation, and 'bond of union' are also terms that were used.
Craft Lodge
a lodge dedicated to the esoteric knowledge of an Order. Likely to be kept separate from any 'friendly society' functions of the Order. More about Gardeners and freemasonry. (Insert Link to p24 here)
Deacon
the senior elected official of an incorporation; many societies and fraternities also elected deacons. Societies and fraternities also used the terms president (preses), chairman, chancellor and master. By the nineteenth century the terms grand master, past grand master and depute grand master were in common use to describe the current, immediate past and scheduled next leaders; these terms were borrowed from freemasonry. The annually elected president of an order was termed 'right worshipful master', another borrowing from freemasonry. More about Gardeners and freemasonry. (Insert Link to p24 here)
Eden
the original garden, used as an archetype from which free gardening derived much of its mythology. Often applied in conjunction with the initials of the names of the four associated rivers Pison, Gihon, Hiddekel (Tigris) and Euphrates. The letters A, N and S are also used. They refer to the words of each degree - Adam, Noah, and Solomon. Eden (Adam), Noah and Solomon are also referred to by symbols the tree of knowledge for Eden (Adam), the ark, dove and rainbow for Noah, and pillars for Solomon.
Fraternity
a mutual aid organisation sometimes, but not always, associated with a single craft or trade. In common use in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, the term was by the end of that time usually synonymous with 'friendly society'.
Free gardener
a member of a society that admitted both operatives (working in the trade) and non-operatives to the benefits of the society.
Friendly Society
according to the Oxford English Dictionary, the original friendly society was a particular (London) fire-insurance company. During the eighteenth century the term became to be applied to a wide variety of mutual-aid associations, whose members paid a regular sum to insure financial help. More about Friendly Societies. (Insert link to p23 here)
Gardeners' March or Walk
an annual celebration held by many lodges. Walks were subject to wide variations from place to place, each garnering their own traditions. Members participated in a formal public parade, usually following a set route as part of a day of festivities, often in conjunction with a celebration feast and organised sports. Many lodges marched with at least one costumed character 'Jock in the green', 'Old Adam, and St Andrew are known. Some paraded with bowers, garlands or 'buskits o' floo'ers', for which prizes were awarded.
Grand Lodge
the main legislative body of an Order. The members of a Grand Lodge usually comprised delegates from participating lodges, annually elected officers and surviving previous office-holders.
Guild, Gild
see incorporation.
Incorporation
a body that regulated a specific craft (trade) or group of crafts in a geographic area, usually a burgh and its trading area. The term incorporation is analogous to the terms guild and gild. The role of each incorporation was defined in a 'seal of cause' or charter issued by their local authority. Each was a local monopoly, which was strictly enforced for the benefit of their members. Incorporations also provided mutual aid and security to members and their dependants. Nineteenth century legislation repealed exclusive trade privileges and many incorporations closed; those that survived tended to emphasise their mutual aid aspects. Many also became free or friendly societies to survive.
Journeyman
a qualified craftsman working in a subordinate position and answering to a master gardener. Originally derived from the practice of travelling from master to master to learn different aspects of a trade.
Lodge
a body of craftsmen in one locality, ruled by an elected set of officials. In relation to gardeners lodge was synonymous with the terms society and fraternity.
Master
a fully qualified craftsman working to his own right. A master employed journeymen (servants) and was able to take on apprentices. A master gardener might be an employee of a landowner.
Non-operative
a member of a gardeners' society who was not a working gardener (operative); sometimes called speculative or gentlemen members; the terms actual and honorary gardener were also used. More about Gardeners and freemasonry. (Insert Link to p24 here)
Operative
in relation to free gardening, an 'operative' member was one whose income was wholly or in part derived from horticulture, including market gardeners, foresters, estate gardeners, nurserymen, and greengrocers.
Order
a number of lodges banded together under one constitution for mutual support and the purposes of promoting brotherhood and craft practices.
Secret
the esoteric knowledge imparted to different classes of member including ritual formulae, words of recognition, knocks, handshakes and others. [More about Gardeners and freemasonry]
Speculative
see non-operative.

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